Dr. Armin Zare received a $296,941 award from the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) for his research on Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Random Surface Roughness. This project intends to continue investigating how surface roughness can significantly affect the aerodynamic performance and efficiency of aircraft by triggering early transition and understanding the dependence of flow physics on various characteristic features of surface topography. Further research on surface roughness will be accomplished by proposing a novel approach to the analysis of random surface roughness that implicitly characterizes the influence of roughness as a stochastic perturbation of the time-averaged mean flow and the dynamical modeling of velocity fluctuations around this stochastically perturbed base state. The outcome of low-complexity stochastic models that allow simulation-free predictions, offer an exceptional vantage point for investigating the vast parameter space of real-world roughness, and researching the local and global effects on turbulent flows will determine the successful result of this project.